Wireless underwater communications has the potential for a range of applications such as high speed sensor networks for the investigation of climate change, environmental monitoring such as ports, pollution, oceanic flows, fish tracing, gathering of oceanographic data, marine archaeology, preserving oil equipment, searching oil fields, investigating mineral stores, communication of submarine to lands, submarines to submarines, ships, divers, search and rescue missions.
Today, sensors operate at higher sampling rates and therefore have the capability to store a large amount of data, thus they need for more efficient downloading of the data. Optical communications with high bandwidth facilitates, transfer large data sets, like seismic data or tides or hydrothermal vent variations, in a time-efficient manner. Underwater optical wireless communications, which is an alternative technology to acoustic and RF communications offer higher data rates but with limited transmission range due to the absorption and multiple scattering of light in water. Compared to communications in the air, underwater communications is severely limited because water is essentially opaque to electromagnetic radiation except in the visible band. Blue and green visible light wavelengths have less attenuation in water. Light travels faster than acoustic waves, therefore a suitable candidate for real time applications.